ChemicalQDeviceAI in Imaging, Framework for New Quantum Era
Greetings Healthcare Colleagues, my name is Kevin Kawchak, and I am the Founder CEO ofChemicalQDevice. Today is January 13th, 2023 for "Artificial Intelligence in Medicine and Imaging, Foundational for the New Quantum Era in Healthcare"
In an article titled “Medical Imaging: From Roentgen to the Digital Revolution, and Beyond.” Bercovich, et al. performed a study in 2018 that provided a chronological perspective regarding today's popular imaging methods. (1)
In 1895: Wilhelm Roentgen discovered the “X-ray” with a Cathode ray tube. The first, and most famous Medical image was of his wife’s hand, Bertha. 1 Year later: Over 1,000 scientific communications regarding X-rays were published. In 1901: Roentgen was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. In addition, Nobel Prize Winning Marie Curie drove a vehicle with an X-ray machine to a battle front in France. (2-5)
In 1929: Werner Forssmann performed the First cardiac angiography (an X-ray for blood vessels) by Inserting a catheter into his own arm vein and passing it into his heart. (Which is not recommended by today's standards). Forssmann won the 1956 Nobel Prize in Medicine. The Technology has since advanced from 2D flat X-Rays to 3D and 4D imaging utilized in modern CT scans.
The History of MRI incorporated several areas of clinical, scientific, and technical fields which involves a patient being exposed to low energy radio waves in a high magnetic field. In 1952, Felix Bloch and Edward Purcell were Jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for foundational NMR technology. In 1973 Paul Lauterbur published the first NMR image, and In 2003, won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine. MRI is used to this day in many modern medical subspecialties for soft tissue analysis. (6-8)
Ultrasounds consist of High-frequency sound waves that are transmitted into the body, and can be used on the patient, oftentimes with the doctor in the same room. In the Late 1700s: Latzaro Spallanzani theorized that bats can interpret sounds not distinguishable to humans. In 1842: Christian Doppler postulated - The Doppler effect, which is the Basis for Ultrasound blood flow. In 1958: Gynecologist Ian Donald used Ultrasound to study an unborn fetus. Now Ultrasounds are Inexpensive, widely available, and important for pediatric imaging, with Newer 3D Ultrasounds being less operator dependent. MR-guided focused ultrasound is used for Parkinson’s Disease examinations. (9-14)
In addition, Medical Imaging is mandatory for Today's Image-guided biopsies used in most organs. (15-18) with Imaging accounting for 90% of all Healthcare data, and [Global AI Medical Imaging] is expected to continue growing at a compound annual growth rate of over 45%. (18a-18b)
The “History of artificial intelligence in medicine” by Kaul, et al. in October 2020 provided a review of AI Healthcare discoveries. (19)
In 1950: Alan Turing first described Artificial Intelligence, highlighting the Turing test which was used to determine whether a computer was capable of human intelligence. In the 1960s: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, and PubMed by the National Library of Medicine were developed. (20)
In 1966: The Stanford Research Institute created “The first electronic person,” referred to as “Shakey” which processed complex instructions and carried out on actions. In the Late 1970s there was an AI Winter due to the Perceived limitations of the technology. And in the Late 1980s to early 1990s there was an AI Winter due to the Cost of electronic databases. (21)

In 1971, an AI Biomedicine Application was created by Saul Amarel at Rutgers University.And in 1975: Rutgers became the First NIH-sponsored AI in Medicine workshop. In 1973: Stanford University developed an AI in Medicine Initiative, which provided Better Networking for Clinical and biomedical researchers. (22-23) In 1976: AI Feasibility was achieved in medicine using a Glaucoma consultation program with CASNET. (24)
In the Early 1970s: “Backward chaining” AI system - MYCIN was invented, with Patient information inputted by physicians with 600 rules, and Provided a list of potential bacterial pathogens, and treatments. MYCIN advanced to EMYCIN. EMYCIN advanced to INTERNIST-1 with Medical knowledge aiding primary care physicians. (25)
In 2007: IBM Watson won first place on Jeopardy. In 2017: Bakkar, et al. used IBM Watson for new proteins. And in 2011: IBM's DeepQA featured Backward reasoning with Natural Language Processing. (26-27) Modern NLP Chatbots include the 2011: Apple Siri. the 2014: Amazon Alexa. the 2015: Pharmabot to assist in medication education, the 2017: Mandy: automated patient intake process. (28-29) and the 2022: ChatGPT.
In the Late 1990s: An Interest in the Machine Learning medical world was renewed, With the Early 2000s marking A new age in medicine, utilizing Deep learning to overcome many previous limitations. These advancements have enabled Improved healthcare diagnostic accuracies and workflow.
In 2017: Arterys received the First FDA Approved Clinical cloud-based Deep Learning algorithm that analyzes cardiac MRIs in seconds. (30) Also in 2017: Machine Learning reliably predicted the progression of Alzheimer’s disease with amyloid imaging. (31)
Similar to Deep Learning ushering in a New age in Medicine in the early 2000s, better quantum hardware availability may offer novel advancements with Quantum AI. Parallel and exponentially better processing power utilizing quantum bits may be realized in Medical Imaging to improve diagnostic accuracies and workflow. Improvements over current Quantum Medical imaging will likely be realized as the number of qubits continues to increase and system error is mitigated and/or corrected.
Problems that utilize quantum mechanics in Medical Imaging have seen developments in academic papers, and have been strengthened through industry partnership. In 2022: Roche and QC Ware developed a Quantum Neural Network Framework for Medical Imaging citing that their methods will "continue to be refined as the hardware evolves." (32)
In addition, Rigetti and Strangeworks have teamed up in Medical Imaging to enhance "the performance of an AI model for diagnosing breast cancer and pneumonia by reducing training parameters from 800,000 to 200,000." (33)
In Early 2023: IBM will be finishing installation of the first quantum computer in Healthcare at Cleveland Clinic, as part of a 10 year partnership. (34-35) 2023 is also the year that the first Practical Quantum Computer is expected to be delivered by National Science Foundation funded projects. (36) In addition: Fermilab and NYU Langone plan to partner with SQMS to build a quantum computer and new quantum sensors to enhance today's MRI analysis. (37) These efforts will likely aid in the analysis of complex human brain interactions.
Lastly: Quanvolutional Neural Networks are a highly effective model in machine learning, and are more resilient to Quantum system noise for Neuroimaging applications. These Emerging Neural Networks may also overcome large data and large model problems that are associated with high resolution brain imaging. (38-39)
In Summary: Medical Imaging Discoveries utilizing electromagnetic radiation and sound waves are critical for Today's image-guided surgeries. The significantly better computer hardware availability in the late 1990s led to a renewed interest regarding Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, with benefits extending to current day. With IBM's 16,000 Qubit Modular quantum computer due by late 2023, Big Data advantages utilizing QuanvolutionalNeural Networks may lead to a marked advancement for this New Quantum Era in Healthcare. (40)
References are available in the comments below. Have a productive rest of your day.
Smile at end!
1/13/23 "Artificial Intelligence in Medicine and Imaging, Foundational for the New Quantum Era in Healthcare" References[1][2];year=2015;volume=27;issue=1;spage=90;epage=95;aulast=Panchbhai[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15];year=2015;volume=27;issue=1;spage=90;epage=95;aulast=Panchbhai[16][17][18][18a][18b][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40]
Created by Kevin Kawchak Founder CEO ChemicalQDevice2023 San Diego, CaliforniaHealthcare Innovation